The Arab Spring was a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests (both non-violent and violent), riots, and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution, and spread throughout the countries of the Arab League and its surroundings. The Arab Spring has often been described as a wave of popular uprisings against an oppressive rule (“Intifadas”). While the wave of initial revolutions and protests had ended by mid-2012, some refer to the ongoing large-scale conflicts in the Middle East and North Africa as a continuation of the Arab Spring, while others refer to the aftermath of revolutions and civil wars post mid-2012 as the Arab Winter.
The Tunisian Revolution, also known as the Jasmine Revolution, was an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations taking place in Tunisia. The events began on 18 December 2010 and led to the ousting of longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011. It eventually led to a thorough democratization of the country and to free and democratic elections. They saw the victory of a coalition of the Islamist Ennahda Movement with the centre-left Congress for the Republic and the left-leaning Ettakatol as junior partners.
The Egyptian Revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution, began on 25 January 2011 and was part of the Arab Spring. It consisted of demonstrations, marches, occupations of squares, riots, non-violent civil resistance, acts of civil disobedience and strikes. Millions of protesters from a range of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. The revolution included Islamic, liberal, anti-capitalist, nationalist and feminist elements. Violent clashes between security forces and protesters resulted in at least 846 people killed and over 6,000 injured. Protesters burned over 90 police stations. The protests took place in Cairo, Alexandria and other cities.
Yo Soy 132 is a social movement composed for the most part of Mexican university students from private and public universities, residents of Mexico, claiming supporters from about 50 cities around the world. It began as opposition to the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) candidate Enrique Peña Nieto and the Mexican media's allegedly biased coverage of the 2012 general election. The name Yo Soy 132, Spanish for “I Am 132”, originated in an expression of solidarity with the original 131 protest's initiators. The phrase drew inspiration from the Occupy movement and the Spanish 15-M movement. The protest movement was self-proclaimed as the “Mexican spring” (an allusion to the Arab Spring) by its first spokespersons, and called the “Mexican occupy movement” in the international press.
Global wave of protests against the privatization of the educational institutions, in defense in public education and for the democratization of power within the institutions.
Amsterdam New University, Universiteit van Amsterdam
New Art of the New University, by Jonas Staal.
London Central Saint Martins